Recent re-analysis of the finds from excavations on the Roman remains has also revealed previously unrecognised early medieval material Alex Croom pers. Later sources refer to the saint's miraculously moving a rock, now known as St. As well as regular visits, it is apparent that there were other systems of communicating between the islands; Cuthbert's death was signalled by a monk at the hermitage and seen by a monk in a watchtower at Lindisfarne VSC Lisaks korraparastele killastustele toimus suhtlus nimetatud saarte vahel ilmselt ka muul viisil--naiteks signaliseeriti teade Cuthberti surmast uhe munga poolt eraklas ja voeti vastu teise munga poolt Lindisfarne'i kloostri vahitornis. Pole kahtlust, et just rannaalad olid varakeskaegse Northumbria sotsiaalses ja majanduslikus elus votmetahendusega.
Anthony's Egyptian desert, where devils could be confronted and faith tested away from the more worldly influences of power and secular society O'Loughlin The tradition of coastal and maritime retreat was a particularly strong one in early medieval Irish Christian practice.
There was the distinct Irish and Hiberno-Latin literary genre of the immrama 'rowing about'. The key structural element was the sea voyage on which further encounters were hung blooding a; b. The practice of locating hermitages or monastic sites offshore was widespread in Ireland and areas influenced by the religious DH Trading Systems of the Irish church Herity ; The major Scottish cult centre at Iona was located on an offshore island, and it has been argued convincingly that the choice of Lindisfarne as the site for a monastery by Irish churchmen was governed by both a desire to emulate Iona and a wider urge to link into existing concepts of island asceticism O'Sullivan We thus have two contrasting images of the coastal zone and the sea in early medieval Britain: a thriving and important corridor for communication and trade, and a bleak zone of isolation suitable for hermits and holy men.
Is it possible to reconcile these two seemingly opposed conceptualisations of the sea, one related to the secular world of power and economy and the other linked to the ecclesiastical world? What follows is a more detailed exploration of the coastal archaeology of Northumbria with two brief case studies of areas that have evidence for important secular and ecclesiastical activity: the Holy Island and Bamburgh area in northern Northumberland and Dunbar and Tyningham in east Lothian Scotland.
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The Northumbrian coast At its greatest extent the eastern coastline of Northumbria from the mouth of the Humber to the Firth of Forth runs over miles. There is great variation in this coastline.
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DH Trading Systems At its southern end the coast has evolved considerably, with the North Sea and the Humber estuary constantly remodelling the coastline of the low-lying Holderness area of east Yorkshire; it is certain that there has been considerable retreat of the coastline in this area. Moving north, the nature of the coast changes, gentle beaches are replaced by clay cliffs reaching a height of m at Flamborough Head.
Despite their size, these cliffs are comprised of soft shale and clays and are vulnerable to erosion from the sea. They do not form a solid barrier. In places, such as Whitby, Hartlepool and Scarborough they are broken by river estuaries.
Elsewhere, there are small valleys providing access to the coast. In Yorkshire, many of these, such as Robin Hood's Bay, Staithes, Runswick Bay and Saltburn have become the site of small fishing villages, which probably grew up in the 11thth centuries AD. However, access to the coast in County Durham is far more limited. The small valleys known as denes provide some access to the sea, but few Bitcoin Hind Android vidin villages developed along this more exposed coast.
As the coast heads north to the estuaries of the Wear and the Tyne the cliffs rise again and the coast becomes rockier. The Tyne estuary is dominated to the north by the rocky eminence of Tynemouth still surmounted by the ruins of its 12th century monastery. The coastline to the north of this remains rocky, but broken by a number of river mouths including the Blyth and Wansbeck, before becoming increasingly low-lying with developed dune systems and expansive sandy beaches.
This is occasionally broken by rocky outcrops, such as at Dunstanburgh and Bamburgh, where the Whin Sill, a line of tough basaltic rocks projects into the North Sea. The Whin Sill is also responsible for the formation of a series of small coastal islands, including Coquet Island, the Fame Islands and parts of Holy Island.
After reaching the mouth of the Tweed, the cliffs reappear, DH Trading Systems much of the southeast coastline of Scotland is dominated by high cliffs preventing easy access to the beach, before the cliffs once again fade away replaced by wide sandy beaches as the coast turns westwards into the Firth of Forth. In general, there have undoubtedly been some changes in the coastline of Northumbria in the millennium or more since the Anglo-Saxon period, particularly around Holderness and Cleveland, where there has certainly been some coastal retreat.
Beyond this, though, there has been little major alteration in the broad course of coast, and the modern coastline broadly resembles that of Bede and Oswald. It is important to explore the human geography of the early medieval Northumbrian coast. It is possible to identify key early medieval sites along the coast using both archaeological and historical evidence.
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The evidence from archaeology mainly takes the form of carved stone, primarily of an ecclesiastical nature, supplemented by excavation at a series of important sites, including Whitby, Hartlepool, Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, Lindisfarne and Bamburgh Cramp ; Lang ; There is little evidence for any mid-Saxon coastal settlement in Holderness.
This is not surprising, due to the significant retreat of the coastline in this area. It was recorded in Alcuin's Life of St. Willibrord, that Wilgils settled as a hermit at the tip of Spurn Head in the mid-7th century Levison This hermitage may have been identical to, or connected to the Cornu Yallis from where Ceolfrith set sail for Gaul.
It is not until that Filey is reached that there is further evidence for ecclesiastical sites in the form of a single Pohivorgutehingute raamatud stone grave cover from the church of St. Oswald Lang Filey sits in a shallow bay, and a number of narrow valleys lead down to the beach.
The beach is protected to the north from prevailing winds by the headland known as Filey Brigg, and provides an excellent and sheltered location to beach ships. Standing prominently on the headland above the estuary of the river Esk lies Whitby, the site of a major Anglo-Saxon double monastery founded by Hild in AD Well-attested in the documentary evidence, it is best known as the site of the Synod of Whitby in AD A short distance north, across Whitby DH Trading Systems is the intriguing site of Lythe.
Although best known for its extensive collection of Anglo-Scandinavian sculpture, there are fragments of 7th or 8th century date Langff.
It has been suggested that this site was possibly a cell of Whitby Abbey Cambridgeff. Another major monastic site DH Trading Systems on the headland at Hartlepool. Bede records its foundation in AD This site has also seen extensive excavations revealing significant structural and artefactual remains Daniels ;and has also produced plentiful pre-Viking carved stonework Okasha At Monkwearmouth, one element of the twin monastery founded by Benedict Biscop in ADthe site sits on the north side of the mouth of the river Wear.
Although the topography of the area has been substantially changed in the post-medieval period by the dumping of ballast on a colossal scale, it is still clear that the monastery would have had an excellent view of traffic in the river, and easy access to a landing area. The site has been extensively excavated by Rosemary Cramp and has also produced much stone sculpture Crampff.
Jarrow also lies close to a river mouth; despite substantial reshaping of the area by post-medieval industry, it is evident that the monastery stood right on the river edge Crampff.
It was also adjacent to the small inlet known as Jarrow Slake. Just 3 km to the north-east lay the site of the Roman fort of South Shields Arbeia.
Recent re-analysis of the finds from excavations on the Roman remains has also revealed previously unrecognised early medieval material Alex Croom pers. The 12th-century Syrneon of Durham locates this site at Jarrow; it may have lain at the mouth of the small river Don a short-distance downstream from the monastery.
An alternate suggestion places it at South Shields Wood quoted in Cramp However, it may have in fact been at an entirely different location, possibly on the River Don in south Yorkshire Rollason Across the Tyne stand the remains of the monastery of Tynemouth. Whilst the standing ruins are of 12th century date, an Anglo-Saxon monastic site is recorded there HE 5. Early medieval activity is indicated by sculptural material Crampff.
Just over 30 km north, on the mouth of the river Coquet, lies Coquet Island. A small ecclesiastical site was recorded here by Bede VSC A late 7th- or early 8th-century grave slab was found here in Cramp, and a brooch and buckle of early medieval date have also been found. Under a mile upstream lies the settlement of Warkworth. King Ceolwulf gifted Warkworth, its church 'with its appurtenances' to the community of St.
Cuthbert at some point before AD LE ii. Although now largely disappeared, the site of the church overlooking the river is known, and in the late 18th century a substantial stone cross was recovered from the immediate surrounding area Crampf.
Lindisfarne and Bamburgh A major DH Trading Systems of early medieval features can be found at Lindisfarne and Bamburgh Fig. The Island of Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, is a well-documented monastic site.
It is barely 2 km offshore, and at low tide is accessible by foot across a causeway. In addition to extensive documentary evidence for the Anglo-Saxon monastery, the site has produced a large corpus of stone sculpture Crampff. Significant early medieval activity has Jaga valikute maksumaara identified on the island, though there is no certain evidence as to the location of the early monastery which is presumed to lie beneath the later Benedictine Priory.
The major secular power centre of Bamburgh lies just 8 km across the water from Holy Island, and the two are clearly intervisible. Bede also records that the relics of St. Oswald lay in a church dedicated to St. Peter at Bamburgh HE 3. Excavation in the s and more recently has revealed evidence DH Trading Systems Anglo-Saxon activity and a substantial cemetery at Bowl Hole in the nearby sand dunes. Fragments of a carved stone chair were also found at Bamburgh in the 19th century Crampf.
Surviving are the remains of a small 13th century hermitage, which was home to monks from the Benedictine community at Durham.
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DH Trading Systems limited excavation has revealed no definite evidence for its date, its name suggests that St. Ebba founded it, probably in the early 7th century Fowler Cuthbert's motivation in seeking an island hermitage was an attempt to avoid distraction and by restricting his gaze.
According to Bede, when Cuthbert was building his hermitage on Outer Fame 'Out of piety, he made the walls higher inside by cutting away the solid rock at the bottom, so that with only the sky to look at, eyes and thoughts might be kept from wandering and inspired to seek for higher things' VSC Despite his attempt to seek solitude, it is clear that he regularly received visitors from the monastery at Lindisfarne and elsewhere VSC Cuthbert struggled with this: 'He used to keep the window open and enjoy seeing Kas aktsiaoptsioonid mojutavad aktsiahinda brethren and DH Trading Systems seen by them, but in the end he blocked it up and opened it only to give a blessing or for some definite need' VSC As well as regular visits, it is apparent that there were other systems of communicating between the islands; Cuthbert's death was signalled by a monk at the hermitage and seen by a monk in a watchtower at Lindisfarne VSC Other off-shore hermitages could also be the sites of meetings, such as that between Cuthbert and Aelfflaed which took place on Coquet Island, rather than the nearby mainland vill at Warkworth VSC These islands were not only retreats; they were also probably key navigational points.
The Fame Islands lie in the main deep-water coastal shipping lane. Early pilot manuals to the north-east coast of England note that Inner Fame, the nearest and largest island, was marked by a lighthouse from as early as and it is likely that the medieval building known as Prior Castell's Tower, which dates in part to at least the late 15th century, was used as a navigational mark and lighthouse. The Fame beacon was not only used to steer traffic away from dangerous rocks, but also provided a key point by which to navigate some approaches to the harbour on Holy Island.
Coquet Island also provided an important navigational point, and in the 17th century the tower on the church was used as a way mark Collins Dunbar, Auldhame and Bass Rock A similar arrangement of power centre, monastic site and offshore hermitage can be identified further north, on the coast of East Lothian Fig. Dunbar, recorded by Eddius Stephanus in the Life of St. Wilfrid as Dinbaer, a British name, probably originated as native British power centre.
Around 7 km to the west, close to the mouth of the Tyne, lay Tyningham, an ecclesiastical site closely associated with St.
Carved stonework has been found at the site and there are documentary references to the continued presence of an ecclesiastical site at Tyningham Weatherhead This rock DH Trading Systems identified as the outcrop now known as St. Baldred's Boat, which lies just off the coast of the mainland at Auldhame.
This site was identified in later sources, such as the 16th-century Breviary of Aberdeen, as the place where Balthere died. At Auldhame itself recent excavation has uncovered the remains of an early Christian cemetery. Again, in later periods, Bass Rock was used as an important navigational way mark for ships sailing along the coast towards the Firth of Forth Collins Balthere appears to have been associated with aiding navigation in these waters.
Later sources refer to the saint's miraculously moving a rock, now known as St. Baldred's Boat, on account of it causing a navigational hazard. His name is also used to describe another geological feature, St. Baldred's Cradle, a rocky headline just to the north of Tyningham.
It is noticeable DH Trading Systems in Alcuin's Sancti Eboricenses Ecclesiae his passage on Balthere is imbued with imagery of guiding ships to safety in a storm: 'I pray preserve and guide by frail craft through the ocean depths among the sea-monsters and waves as high as cliffs that it may safely reach harbour with its cargo' BKSY ff.
Hermits, islands and landscapes We have seen that the coastal zone of Northumbria was occupied by hermits and anchorites. A series of island or coastal retreats can be identified along the coast from Cornu Vallis to Bass Rock. However, these retreats are all in a close relationship with major coenobitic monasteries, geographically, ideologically and visually. This complex of monasteries and hermitages that lay along the Northumbrian shoreline constituted a rich symbolic landscape.
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It is evident, however, from the documents and the archaeological evidence for secular centres, that this symbolic landscape was draped over a vibrant coastal zone which contained key power centres and major communications routes. Despite the rhetoric of isolation and retreat, ascetic practice took place under the gaze of DH Trading Systems kings, nobles, travellers, traders and sailors who moved through and around the coastal landscape of Northumbria.
The fact that most of the island retreats were also significant navigational features for coastal shipping serves to emphasise the extent to which these retreats would have formed key nodal points in the coastal vistas of the kingdom.
Whilst Cuthbert and other early hermits may have seen the move to an island retreat as an attempt to avoid human contact, paradoxically, they retreated to sites clearly visible from major secular power centres, major ecclesiastical centres and on islands that would have been closely observed by coastal shipping.
Not only did these hermits not escape the gaze of the surrounding world, it is also clear that these islands were frequently visited by other monks CL Trading strateegiad pilgrims.
Despite a search for isolation, hermits, by the very virtue of their ascetic practices become key social actors.
Peter Brown in his explorations of holy-men in Syria in the 5th-7th centuries has explored how such figures became 'arbiters of the holy' and had a role in mediating social conflict at a local and regional level Brown ;55 ff. The conflict between ascetic desires and pastoral responsibilities has also been explored with reference to Cuthbert himself Stancliffe Hermits provided leadership by intervention into secular affairs and internal ecclesiastical politics, as well as acting exempla for all Christians.
This helps underscore how offshore retreats were not simply remote places of isolation, but key nodes within the physical and symbolic landscape.
Despite an almost ostentatious remoteness, in practice these Northumbrian coastal hermitages were relatively accessible. The close relationship between major religious sites, hermitages and key communication routes is not only found in maritime contexts in early medieval Northumbria. There is DH Trading Systems similar arrangement between the distribution of ecclesiastical establishments and major terrestrial route ways.
Lastingham N. Yorkshire was an important monastic site established by Cedd, a monk from Lindisfarne in AD The narrative for the foundation provided by Bede implies that the location of the site was remote in the extreme and deliberately chosen for its situation: 'Cedd chose himself a site for the monastery amid some steep and remote hills which seemed better for the haunts of robbers and the dens of wild beasts than for human habitation' HE 3.
However, whilst Lastingham certainly lay on the edge of the North York Moors it was also only a few miles from Ryedale, a fertile agricultural area, which was the location of important occupation in the Roman period, and in the Middle Saxon period saw extensive ecclesiastical activity at a series of locations, including a major cult centre at Hovingham and other probable monastic sites at Kirkdale, Stonegrave, Gilling East and Oswaldkirk.
It is likely that Lastingham may have stood on an important route DH Trading Systems the upland areas of moorland used for pasturing cattle and sheep and the lower lying arable land of the valley of the river Rye. Further north in Northumbria a series of monastic sites are located along the line of Dere Street, the Roman road that ran from York to Corbridge on Hadrian's Wall.
Whilst established as a military communications route in the early Roman period, the road remained in use throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. Symeon of Durham first recorded the name Dere Street in the 12th century, but it is highly probable that he was drawing on late Anglo-Saxon documentary sources HSC 9. A series of monastic sites lie on or extremely close to the line of the road, including Gainford, Chester-le-Street, Ebchester and Corbridge itself.
It is also noticeable that there is a lack of early medieval hermitage sites known at truly remote locations in Northumbria. For example, Brignall Co. Falstone Northumberlandwhere ecclesiastical activity is indicated by the presence of stone sculpture Crampf.
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John Blair has emphasised the close link between hermitages and monastic communities in both Anglo-Saxon, and Irish and Western British monasticism, with a centre-periphery structure, citing examples from Hexham NorthumberlandLichfield Staffordshire and Melrose Scottish Borderswhere close to the main monastery lay a 'more remote' house HE iv. This pattern clearly has its origin in continental practice, such as at Lerins in Southern France, and even St.
Conclusion This paper has tried to show the key role the maritime landscape took in structuring the northern areas of the Kingdom of Northumbria. Despite being beyond the traditional edges of the North Sea zone that enabled key interactions between the early medieval kingdoms of North-West Europe, the sea was an important arena with political, social and religious transactions.
The Irish-influenced Christianity that was prevalent in the kingdom, drawing on concepts of desert and remoteness ultimately derived from Eastern Mediterranean ascetic practices, undoubtedly contributed to the spread of coastal and offshore religious sites along the Northumbrian coast.
However, this was a special kind of remoteness; holy men were isolated yet also visible, remote yet in DH Trading Systems proximity to the ebbs and flows of society. It is essential when exploring early medieval landscapes not to separate religious landscapes with the more mundane landscapes of power, warfare and trade. These Christian landscapes were indeed predicated on the presence of an observer and easy accessibility by secular and ecclesiastical visitors.
Resumee 8. See oh uhtlasi aeg, mil hasti korraldatud merenduslik voim ja valjakujunenud kultuurmaastik rannaaladel olid saanud fihiskonnas tahtsateks teguriteks. Nii ajalooline kui ka arheoloogiline allikmaterjal annavad tunnistust emporium'ide, vic'ide ja kaubitsemiskeskuste vorgustikust.
Paraku on anglosaksideaegse Inglismaa merenduslikud kultuurmaastikud Humberi joest pohja pool leidnud seni akadeemilises uurimistoos vahest kajastamist. Pole kahtlust, et just rannaalad olid varakeskaegse Northumbria sotsiaalses ja majanduslikus elus votmetahendusega.
Peaaegu koikide tahtsamate jogede suudmesse Humberist Forthini olid pustitatud kloostrid, mille lahikonda jaid olulisemad ilmalikud keskused. Samasugune asustusloogika iseloomustas ka teisi Pohja- ja Laanemere-aarseid alasid, eriti uhiskondi, kus rannaalad voimaldasid kontrolli merendusliku tegevuse ule nii sojalises kui ka majanduslikus mottes.
Viimase aja uurimistoo on kasitlenud fisna rohkelt seda, kuidas kujunes ajalooliselt ettekujutus Britanniast ja Iirimaast kui perifeeriast, seda nii otseses kui ka kaudses tahenduses. Visioon perifeersusest baseerus eelkoige geograafial: Britannia ja Iirimaa paiknesid tuntud maailma aarealadel, ristiusus keskse tahendusega Jeruusalemmast ning Puhast Maast kaugel. Varakeskaegsetel kaartidel on see seisukoht selgelt valjendatud. Eriti iiri varases kristluses oli juurdunud traditsioon kasitleda mereaarseid rannaalasid kui kohti, kus oli voimalik muu maailma eest spirituaalseid pelgupaiku leida.
Sama kehtis ka Northumbria kohta, mille kristlik praktika oli iiri kirikust tugevasti mojutatud. Varakeskaegses Britannias kehtis seega mererannast kaks vastandlikku kasitlust. Neist uhe kohaselt oli tegu koridoriga, mille kaudu toimus kommunikatsioon ja kaubandus; teisalt oli see kole ning eraldatud ala, mis sobis elamiseks uksiklastele ja puhameestele. Omaefe kusimus on, kas neid kaht silmanahtavalt vastandlikku kontseptsiooni merest oleks voimalik omavahel sobitada, arvestades, et uks neist on seotud sekulaarse maailma, voimu ja majandusega, teine aga kirikliku maailmaga.
Sellele kusimusele vastuse leidmiseks on artiklis esitatud ulevaade Northumbria ranniku arheoloogilisest ainesest, kasitledes luhidalt kaht konkreetset uurimispiirkonda DH Trading Systems 1.
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Molemalt naidisalalt on teada usna rohkesti andmestikku nii ilmaliku kui ka kirikliku tegevuse kohta varakeskajal. Antud uurimistoos on peetud oluliseks poorata tahelepanu varakeskaegse Northumbria ranniku inimgeograafilistele aspektidele. Olulisemad kohad varakeskaegsel rannikul on tuvastatavad nii arheoloogiliste kui ka ajalooliste meetoditega.
Kasulikku infot Northumbria poliitilise ja kirikliku geograafia kohta voib leida Bede varakeskaegsetest kirjutistest. Bede elas Jarrow's ja antud teema puhul pakub erilist huvi tema Mitmeid kohti on mainitud ka "Anglosaksi kroonikas" ja mitmetes teistes anglosaksi tekstides, naiteks Bede "Puha Cuthberti igapaevases elus" "Prose Life of St Cuthbert".
Arheoloogiline aines koosneb eelkoige kiriklikke motiive kujutavatest raidkividest, mida taiendab valjakaevamistel Whitbys, Hartlepoolis, Monkwearmouthis, Jarrow's, Lindisfarne'is ja Bamburgh's kogutud materjal.
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Suureparane varakeskaegne kompleks moodustub Lindisfame'ist ja Bamburgh'st joon 2. Lindisfarne'i saarel, mis uhtlasi kannab Puhasaare nime Holy Islandpaiknes uks paremini dokumenteeritud varakeskaegseid kloostreid. Saar jaab rannikust vaevalt 2 km kaugusele ja on moona ajal jalgsi ligipaasetav. Sealse anglosaksi kloostri kohta on teada palju kirjutisi ja valjakaevamistel on sealt leitud rohkesti kiviskulptuure. Olulise tahtsusega ilmalik keskus paiknes 8 km kaugusel ule vaikese lahe Bamburgh's.
Molemast nimetatud kohast avanes teisele suureparane vaade. Bamburgh' lahedalt liivaluidetelt on arheoloogiliselt teada anglosaksi kalmistu. Bede andmetel jai lahedusse, Inner Farne'i saarele, erakla, mis leidis eri aegadel kasutamist nii Aidani kui ka Cuthberti poolt. Nimetatud saare vastas Beadnelli neemel asuvad Ebba kabeli halvasti sailinud varemed. Kabeli nimi naib osutavat, et selle rajas Puha Ebba, mis vois toimuda 7. Kui Puha Cuthbert laks pakku vaikesel saarel paiknevasse eraklasse, oli tema eesmargiks tagasitombumine ilmalikust maailmast ja liigse tahelepanu Ailtimine.
The study of this period consistently highlights the importance of a series of key, mainly ecclesiastical, sites: Whitby, Hartlepool, Bamburgh, Lindisfarne and the twin monastery of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow. Even a brief look at a map of early medieval Northumbria will reveal that these sites have coastal or estuarine locations Fig. The key importance of maritime power and coastal zones in the early medieval period is well established.
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